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    作文 > 写作素材 > 时事论据 > 世界各国的元旦

    世界各国的元旦

    2011-12-06 16:32:35

      元旦是庆贺新年的开始,欢度元旦是世界各国各地域的普遍习俗。

      世界上大多数国家把每年1月1日作为元旦,由于世界各国所处的经度位置差异,各国的时间也差异,因此,“元旦”的日期也有差异。如大洋洲的岛国汤加位于日界线的西侧,它是世界上最先开始新的一天的地方,也是最先庆祝元旦的国家。而位于日界线东侧的西萨摩亚则是世界上最迟开始新的一天的地方。阿富汗把春分作为元旦;犹太人把秋分作为元旦;而寒带的爱斯基摩人的元旦是不牢固的,他们把第一次下雨作为元旦。公元前46年,罗马天子儒略·凯撒制定儒略历,开始时他把冬至作为元旦。但是,人们坚持要把朔日作为元旦,因此就把元旦延到冬至后10天。按公历计,中国是世界上第12个开始新年的国家。各个国家由于其历史、文化、宗教信仰、民族习惯差异,也都有自己差异的庆祝。

      泰国

      泰国传统的新年,即“宋干节”(“宋干”是梵语的译音),也叫“泼水节”,是公历的每年4月13日到16日。节日里,人们抬着或用车载着巨大的佛像出游,佛像后面随着一辆辆花车,车上站着化了妆的“宋干女神”,三五成群的男女青年,身着色彩鲜艳的民族服装,敲着长鼓,载歌载舞。在游行队伍经过的门路两旁,善男信女夹道而行,用银钵里盛着用贝叶浸泡过的,渗有香料的水,泼洒到佛像和“宋干女神”身上,祈求新年如意,风调雨顺,然后人们相互洒水,喜笑颜开的祝尊长康健长寿,祝亲朋新年幸运、未婚的青年男女,则用泼水来体现相互之间的恋慕之情。泰国人在新年第一天都在窗台、门口端放一盆清水,家家户户都要到郊外江河中去进行新年沐浴。为庆贺新年,泰国人举行在规模的“赛象大会”,内容有:人象拔河、跳象拾物、象跨人身、大象足球赛、古代象阵演出等。

      日本

      日本每年的12月29日~1月3日为全国休沐日。日本人把12月31日称之为“大晦日”,也就是除夕日。除夕晚上,日本人称之为“除夜”,除夜时他们祈求神灵托福,送走烦恼的旧年,迎来美好的新年,称之为“初诣”。除夕午夜,各处城乡庙宇划分敲钟108下,以此驱除邪恶,日本人则静坐聆听“除夜之钟”,钟声停歇就意味新年的来到。人们便离座上床睡觉,希望得一美梦。元旦早上,家人围坐在一起,相互讲述除夕做的梦,以测休咎。日本人称元旦月朔为“正日”。1—3日为“三贺日”。在正日,小辈须先去怙恃那里贺年,向怙恃问安,然后到亲友家贺年。新年照旧个“吃”的节日,各国人民都以食用自己民族的食物来祈求好运。日本人在“正日”这一天,早餐是很丰盛的,吃砂糖竽艿、荞麦面等,喝屠苏酒。今后一连三天,则吃素的,以示虔诚,祈求来年大吉大利。现代日本多数城里人已放弃新年吃素匀惯,改在“除夜”吃一餐空心面条,以祝在新的一年里,康健长寿。新年里,日本各户门口上方往往都拉起一条草绳或用草绳编的圆圈,称为“注连绳”或“注连饰”。有的还摆上一些松竹,叫做“门松”。许多公司大厦门口和街头巷口都用松竹梅搭起设计新颖、独具匠心的牌楼,以示庆贺。人们还将鹤、龟等象征长寿的动物剪纸贴在住宅内外,祈祷平安。同时还凭据十二生肖,刻个年肖,相互赠送。邮政省还大量刊行绘有年肖的“贺年邮票”。无论是小我私家,照旧团体之间,互赠贺年片成了最热门的祝贺方式,日本人称它为“飘舞的鹞子”,遥致深情。在新年里收到谁收到的贺年片多,谁就会感应新的一年前途美好,财运亨通,格外喜悦。新年里,街坊四邻、亲戚朋友、孩子之间贺年的习惯仍然盛行。晤面时的第一句话就是“恭贺新年”。

      埃及

      埃及人发现当天狼星和太阳一同升起,尼罗河水立时上涨。埃及把尼罗河涨水的这一天作为新年的开始,称为“涨水新年”。埃及的克鲁特人迎接新年,在门口放一张桌子,七八只碟子供着大豆、扁豆、紫苜蓿和小麦的颗粒,另有好些绿色植物的小芽,这象征丰裕。献给神的工具越多,新年的收成就越多。埃及的新年在秋天,因埃及的农业生产是从秋季开始的。约莫在公元前五万年左右,古埃及人已由游牧改为农耕,定居在尼罗河两岸,他们的农业收成与尼罗河是否发生洪水有很大关系。古埃及人从恒久的视察中发现,尼罗河泛滥的时间是有纪律的,他们就把这个时间每次都纪录在竹竿上,从中得知两次泛滥时间之间约莫相隔365天;同时还发现,当尼罗河初涨的潮头来到今天开罗城四周的时候,也正好是太阳与天狼星同时从地平线上升起的时候。于是,古埃及人便把这一天定为一年的开始。这是“元旦”最早的由来。

      印度

      印度从每年10月31日起为新年共5天,第四天为元旦。新年第一天,谁也不许对人生气,更禁绝发脾气。印度有的地域,元旦早上,家家户户哭声不停,人人脸上涕泪横流,他们以岁月易逝、人生苦短,用哭来迎新年,是对人生的慨叹。有些地域的人们以禁食一天一夜来迎接新的一年,由元旦凌晨开始直到午夜为止。由于这种怪异的习俗,印度的元旦被人称为“痛哭元旦”、“禁食元旦”。印度人在过年的前5天,各地都要演出印度史诗《罗摩衍那》,意为罗摩的游行,饰演史诗中的英雄与纸扎巨人“作战”,“英雄”引发点着火的箭,纸扎巨人便在观众的欢呼声中着火烧毁,除夕前,家家户户门前都张贴上种种精美图画。元旦早上,人们提着精制的小灯,拿着红粉包,出门向老人和亲友贺年。晤面贺喜后,就相互将红粉涂在对方的额上,体现祥瑞如意,抬头见喜。年青人把红墨水装进水枪里,射到亲友身上,称为“洒红”,体现祥瑞如意。印度青年喜畛刳过新年时不管熟悉与否,晤面徒手格斗。围观者叫好助威风,往往成为女人追求的工具。印度中部土着民族勃希勒人,为庆祝新年,在游戏场中竖立一根圆滑粗大的木杆,杆顶有一只盛着礼品的小袋,女人们手持禾竹竿竭力阻挠向杆上爬去的小伙卫子,小伙子们则在杆下围成一圈,努力防御女人们对爬杆者的攻击,直到爬竿者夺得小袋取告捷利为止。

      朝鲜

      朝鲜和中国一样,在新年也有贴窗花、桃符的习俗。朝鲜人在新年时,家家户户贴对联和年画。有的人家在门上贴上寿星或仙女的画像,祈求上天保佑,驱走鬼魅,赏给幸福。元旦黎明,人们把一些钞票塞进了除夕预先扎好的稻草人中,扔到十字路口,体现送走邪恶,迎接祥瑞福星。黄昏,人们又将全家人一年中脱落的头发烧掉,祝愿家人四季平安。新春佳节,朝鲜的妇女穿着一新。元旦日少女们头戴一种麻制的帽子,称为“福巾”,身穿带花纹的五色彩衣,进行荡秋千角逐。她们以一处树花为目标,看谁先踢到或咬到为胜。也有在高处挂上铜铃的,以先碰响者为冠军。新年期间,朝鲜人除了享以美酒佳肴外,还必须要做一种用糯米加上松子、栗子粉、枣泥和蜂蜜等,蒸煮成与我国的八宝饭相类似的甜饭食用,以预示家里人丁兴旺日子过得像蜜一样甜。

      蒙古

      新一年到来,蒙古老人会装扮成牧羊人的样子,穿着毛绒的皮外套,头戴一顶皮帽,手拿一根鞭子,不停地把鞭子在空中抽得啪啪响,以示驱邪祝福。

      新加坡

      新加坡,元旦起个大早,欢快奋兴的从尊长那里拿“红包(压岁钱)”。新年里有个社团组成的舞狮、舞龙队沿街演出。男女老幼穿着盛装,带上礼品走访亲友。过年时,人们爱吃油炸糯米和红糖做成的甜年糕。

      英国

      在英国,公历元旦虽没有圣诞节那样隆重,但在除夕夜和元旦,照旧凭据当地的民俗习惯开展种种庆祝运动,以示送旧迎新。英国人在除夕的深夜,常带上糕点和酒出去造访,他们不敲门,就径直走进亲友家去。按英国人的民俗,除夕千夜事后,朝屋里迈进第一只脚的人,预示着新的一年的运气。如果第一个客人是个黑发的男人,或是个快乐、幸福而富足的人,主人就将全年祥瑞走好运。如果第一个客人是个浅黄头发的女人,或是个忧伤、贫穷、不幸的人,主人在新的一年中将遭霉运,会遇上困难和灾祸。除夕在亲友家作客的人,在未攀谈前,要先去拨弄壁炉的火,祝福主人“开门大吉”。英国的新年庆祝运动多数在除夕火夜举行,“迎新宴会”,即是其中之,这种宴会分“家庭宴会”和“团体宴会”两种,宴会通常从除夕晚上8时开始中直至元旦凌晨结束。宴会上备有种种美酒佳肴和点心,供人们通宵达量地开怀痛饮。午夜时分,人们打开收音机,聆听教堂大钟的新年钟声,钟声鸣响时,人们一片欢悦,举杯祝酒,尽情欢呼,高歌《往昔的日光》。“除夕舞会”则是另一种庆祝运动。由当地的旅馆和舞会,夜幕降临。人们身着节日盛装,从四面八方杰到这些装饰一新的灯辉煌煌的舞场,在美妙的乐声中翩翩起舞,成千上万的人群,还云集到各个广场,围绕着广场中心的喷泉和厄洛斯神象,载歌载舞,尽情狂欢。电视台还在广场做现场直播,让在这家“守岁”的人也共享欢喜。

      德国

      德国的新年,庆祝时间前后有一周。这期间,家家户户都要摆上一棵枞树和横树,树叶间系满绢花,体现繁花如锦,春满人间。德国人在除夕午夜新年惠临前一刻,爬到椅子上,钟声一响,他们就跳下椅子,并将一重物抛向椅背后,以示甩去祸殃,跳入新年。孩子们组成乐队,穿上新衣服,拿着口琴和手风琴,列队在街上吹奏。成年人则手持彩旗,跟在后面呐喊唱歌,欢庆新年,德国的妇女在新年里要即兴演出家庭题材的喜剧小品。在德国的农村流传着一种过新年的民俗--“爬树角逐”,小伙子们顺着光秃秃的树角逐爬高,第一名被誉为“新年英雄”,以示步步高升。

      巴西

      巴西人在元旦这天,高举火炬,蜂拥爬山。人们争先恐后地寻找那象征幸福的金桦果。只有不畏艰险的人,才气找到这种稀有的果子。他们称之为“寻福”。巴西农村有一个奇特的民俗习惯——即是相互揪耳,人们在元旦晤面时,一定要相互使劲揪住对方的耳朵,体现祝福。

      伊朗

      伊朗实行的是伊斯兰历,它的季节和月份是不牢固的。在伊朗,庆贺新年就是庆祝春天到来,往往是在公历3月下旬,过新年要隆重庆祝一周时间,人们涌上街头生起“篝火”——“夜火”,然后全家人依次从夜火上跳来跳去,体现烧掉“晦气”,迎来灼烁,驱邪灭病,幸福永存。除夕夜要吃“七道菜”,每道菜的名称都要以字母“S”开头的,以示祥瑞。月朔到初三,人们走亲探友,互祝春节快乐。新年最后一天,全家出游踏青,以避邪恶。除夕,全家欢聚,吃顿丰盛的“团圆饭”。这时桌上摆着七样工具,其波斯文名称的第一个字母都是S,称为“哈夫特辛”。七样工具及其寄义是:麦苗或豆苗——万物生机勃勃,欣欣向荣;苹果——硕果累累,鲜美滋润;醋——生活美满,有滋有味;蒜——驱除恶魔;金、银币——招财进宝,发家致富;香料(调味用)——生活美好;麦芽糖——生活甜蜜。此外,桌上还放着《古兰经》和伊斯兰教什叶派鼻祖阿里的画像,体现主人的虔诚;另有象征灼烁、诚挚、前程似锦的镜子、蜡烛、彩蛋和金鱼。

      法国

      法国以酒来庆祝新年,人们从除夕起开始狂欢痛饮,直到1月3日才终止。法国人认为元旦这一天的天气预示着新的一年的年景。元旦清晨他们就上街看风向来占卜:刮南风,预兆风调雨顺,这一年会是平安而炎热;刮西风,有一个打鱼和挤奶的丰收年;刮东风,水果将高产;刮冬风,则是欠收年。

      瑞士

      瑞士:瑞士人有元旦健身的习惯,他们有的三五成群去爬山,站在山顶面对冰天雪地,高声赞美美好的生活;有的在山林中沿着长长的雪道滑雪,似乎在寻找幸福之路;有的举行踩高跷角逐,男女老幼齐上阵,互祝身体康健,在庆祝仪式开始的几个星期以前,妇女们忙着制作男人们所穿的服装。人们用木头精心镌刻成的圆盘形头饰,有的象征衡宇,有的象征桥梁和乡村等。通常加入庆祝运动的都装扮成女性,象征富有和善良。他们戴的假面具,面颊丰满,都是用蜡制作的。他们口含一朵小花,脸上的心情“千篇一律”。五光十色的头饰上,还饰有祖先的座右铭。

      希腊

      在希腊的元旦时,家家都要做一个大蛋糕,里面放一枚银币。主人将蛋糕切若干块,分给家人或来访的亲朋挚友。谁吃到带有银币的那块蛋糕,谁就成了新年最幸运的人,各人都向他祝贺。

      罗马尼亚

      元旦前夜,人们在广场上竖起高峻的圣诞树,搭起舞台。市民们一边烧着焰火,一边载歌载舞。农村人拉着木犁,上面装饰着种种彩花,庆祝新年。

      巴基斯坦

      在元旦这一天,巴基斯坦人们个个手拿红粉跑出门,见了亲友,道过新喜,便相互将红粉涂在额上,以示庆祝新年祥瑞如意。

      阿富汗

      在阿富汗北部地域的居民,每逢元旦都要举行猛烈的抢山羊角逐,以示庆祝。两队骑手争抢猎物,角逐既紧张猛烈,又喜庆欢喜。

      阿根廷

      阿根廷人认为水是最圣洁的。每年元旦,各家老少三五成群到江河中洗“新年浴”,以洗去身上的一切污秽。

      墨西哥

      墨西哥有些地域的人们在新年到来的时候是禁止笑的,他们一年共分18个月,每月20天,一年最后5天内禁绝笑。

      保加利亚

      元旦用餐时,谁打喷嚏谁准会给全家人带来幸福,家主将第一只羊、牛或马驹许给他,以祝愿他给全家人带来幸福。

      巴拉圭

      巴拉圭人把每年最后五天定为“冷食日”。在这五天中,上至国家元首,下至普通黎民,都不能动烟火,只能吃冷食,直到元旦,才气生火做饭,庆祝佳节。

      韩国

      韩国人在元旦这一天,全家除了团聚饭宴外,还要进行祭祀祈祷等运动。男孩子多数去放鹞子,女孩子则跳跳板。

      坦桑尼亚

      坦桑尼亚新年前夕,沿海的斯瓦希里族人家家户户要用木炭爆玉米花撒在物内的各个角落,以示驱散妖魔,祈求幸福;用玉米和菜豆煮饭盛于碗盘放在门前,供串亲的过路人随便食用。元旦那天,人们鸡鸣即起,女人们身着彩裙,走门串户唱民歌;早餐后,鼓乐齐鸣,男女老少三五成群到海滩洗澡,以示洗去污秽,康健欢喜地迎接新年。

      意大利

      意大利人的除夕是狂欢之夜。他们对新年除夕远比其它任何节日都要重视。当夜幕开始降临,人们纷纷拥向街头,燃爆竹放焰火,男男女女翩翩起舞,一直跳到午夜时分。这时,各家各户把家中一切可以打碎的破旧瓶瓶罐罐、盆碗碟盘,乃至花盆、澡盆等,扔出窗外,认为这样可以去掉烦恼和厄运,以示祥瑞如意,除旧迎新。另外,元旦这天,各家各户都燃起一炉火,日夜不息。这样在一年里一切都市顺利兴旺。据说这种民俗是从古罗马时代承袭下来的。

      美国

      美国的除夕之夜,人们在外开篝火晚会。夜十二点,各人一起把旧物扔进火里烧掉,并围火歌舞,狂欢至黎明。新年是全美各州一致庆祝的主要节日之一。但在美国,新年远不如感恩节或圣诞节那样热闹。美国人过新年。最热闹的是除夕晚上。是夜,各地教堂都举行隆重的礼拜运动。人们聚集在教堂、街头或广场,唱诗、祈祷、祝福、仟悔,并一同迎候那除旧更新的一瞬。午夜12点整,全国教堂钟声齐鸣。乐队高奏有名的怀旧歌曲《一路平安》。在音乐声中,激动的人们拥抱一起,甚至素不相识的人也可以相互亲吻。人们就这样怀着惜此外感伤和对新生活的憧憬配合迎来新的一年。

      苏格兰

      在苏格兰的元旦前夕,家家户户门前都市放着一些金钱,没人看守,盗贼和乞丐在这天晚上,看见了也不动分毫。因为当地民俗,新年前夕,先把金钱放在门外,翌日新年降临,大清早打开门时,就看见门口有金钱,取其“一见发达”之意。

      比利时

      在比利时,元旦的早上,农村中的第一件事即是向畜贺年。人们走到牛、马、羊、狗、猫等动物身边,煞有介事向这些生灵通明:“新年快乐!”

      编辑本段趣味习俗

      杯盘碎片送朋友丹麦人在元旦前夜,家家户户都要将平时打碎的杯盘碎片收集起来,待夜深人静时偷偷地送至朋友家的门前。元旦的早晨,如果谁家门前堆放的碎片越多,则说明他家的朋友越多,新年一定很幸运。妇女坐上市长椅西德人过元旦,要演出妇女夺权的喜剧。许多地方的妇女三五成群地冲进市政府大厅,突入市长办公室,坐上市长办公椅,体现接管市长权力。摔瓶打罐扔脸盆意大利的一些地方,元旦前夜午夜时分,如果你在路上行走是很不宁静的,因为这时人们都要把屋里的一些破旧瓶、缸、盆等扔出门外砸碎,以示除旧迎新。喝光余酒交好运法国人在新年到来之前,各家一定要把家中的余酒全部喝光,以致许多人喝得酩酊烂醉陶醉。他们认为,元旦时如果家中另有剩余的酒,新一年里交厄运。深更半夜吃葡萄西班牙人在元旦前夜全家团聚。到12点时,以教堂钟声为号,争着吃葡萄,每敲一下钟,必须吃下一颗葡萄,而且要连着吃下12颗,体现来年一帆风顺。

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